Have you heard such words, Gnosticism or Manichaeism or Dualism? It’s not a broad definition of those words commonly used in a modern term. It is more related to the early Christianity. I appreciate very much today a depth of study of this topic I engaged one time when I was at a Christian college. Although I don’t remember whether I chose that topic or the school assigned me that topic, it (that study) remains as a monumental guideline when the Truth is challenged. I am not talking about schism (Gnostics is not a schism).
In a broad sense, Manichaeism and Dualism are Gnosticism which is derived from the Greek word, “knowledge.” Yes, they are based on knowledge not from above. In Gnosticism, some content of the Bible has been changed in a subtle way (almost in an unnoticeable manner) while it seemingly maintains overall what the Bible says. Those early Gnostic writings are still available today and see for yourself.
How does the Bible survive in those challenges in the very first century onward? That’s amazing. Throughout history the Bible has been challenged by any of those subtle and false teachings like Gnosticism. In short, anything which takes ‘Divine’ out of the Bible is Gnostics. There is no Truth where there is no Divine. – T